The fishbone diagram, cause and effect, or ishikawa diagram is one of the most common quality tools used today. Best known by its resemblance to a fish's body the fishbone diagram is used to show the many possible causes for an effect. The tool is used to help coordinating brainstorming in an effort to discover root causes.
Old School Process Control
By: Steve Murphy
Mr. Murphy frequently writes about "Six Sigma in the real world." Mr. Murphy can be contacted via email by clicking here: Steve Murphy To submit your post on listen to the gemba visit: Submit a Post on Listen to the Gemba.
Like a lot of university students of my era when I wasn’t “working on the post at Christmas” I worked on factory production lines. One local factory used excess yeast produced by Burton’s brewing industry to produce stock cubes. No not OXO another brand using a modern technique to produce a crumbly cube. The production machines were modified sweet making machines and operating one was a black art. The correct process depended on getting the right balance of gloop and water to produce cubes of the right weight and strength to allow the wrapping machine to individually foil wrap them.
SIPOC Mapping (What, Why and How)
When it comes to understanding a process, few tools are as powerful as the SIPOC map. The SIPOC can be used in both process mapping and value stream mapping. When used as part of a value stream initiative the map shows material and information flow in forward and backwards loops, this allows teams to identify potential gaps from a systemic view which helps us understand the effects of activities both upstream and downstream. Today we will look at the SIPOC map from a process mapping perspective.
What does SIPOC mean?
The tools name SIPOC is rather catchy. Each of the letters provide us with insight as to portions of a process we should review when mapping from a high level. SIPOC map keep in mind that the suppliers provide the inputs to the process. The process which is what you are trying to improve should in some way provide value or transformation to the inputs which results in an output that needs to at minimum meet your customer's expectations.
When do we use a SIPOC Map?
The SIPOC diagram is most often used to identify opportunities for improvements before a project begins. Because the tool shows us all relevant aspects of a process it can also be useful when a team needs to:
What does a SIPOC Map look like?
How do I use a SIPOC Map?
One of the added benefits of a SIPOC diagram is how easy they are to create. Follow these simple steps and you will be able to create a SIPOC map:
1. Find an area as close to the process you are mapping as possible so that you can see the process happening and engage with people at the gemba.
2. Start by mapping the process out. You should map no less than 4 steps and no more than 7 high level steps.
3. Next identify the process outputs.
4. Now identify customers (internal/external) that will receive the outputs.
5. After you have identified customers, document the inputs of the process. These are the X's that are transformed into outputs or Y's by the process.
6. Lastly Identify any suppliers of the inputs.
7. If at all possible identify requirements that might be known already. If you are following the DMAIC method these CTQ's will be verified in the measure phase.
After using a SIPOC map we can now see all the elements of the process clearly.
1. There was an inquiry for a bike repair which resulted in a scheduled appointment date and time.
2. Next the owner came with his bicycle ready for a diagnosis which resulted in a recommendation and an estimate to the bike owner.
3. The bike rep. then received permission for the order and prepared his purchase order for the bike mechanic.
4. The parts were then ordered by the manager which was the internal approval for the bike rep.
5. The vendor then delivered the parts which was the approval for the bike mechanic to perform the repairs and ultimately resulted in the customer being called.
6. Then through observation the bike was repaired.
If you would like to download a free SIPOC template simply click on the link below.
Process Mapping - What, Why and How
One of the most effective tools any process orientated employee can use is the process map. The process map has been around since the dawn of time and has evolved into many different iterations in order to meet users needs. Along with the flexibility of a process map it's quite effective at showing a user where pain points in a process might be.
What is a process map?
Process mapping refers to a tool used to make business processes visual. The process map documents an entire process step by step which allows us to see relationships between inputs and outputs of a process along with clear identification of decision points and many other steps in the process series. The process map is generally used towards the beginning of initiatives in order to understand the flow of a process but it can also be used in support of almost every phase of improvement projects.
Different Types of process maps:
Traditionally there are many different types of process maps that have been developed and used. For example a SIPOC and a value stream map are forms of process maps but generally provide a much deeper level of understanding as they identify information flows too. In general there are three different categories of process maps:
Why do we process map?
In general process maps provide us with a visual display of the sequence of steps within a process. They can also be used as a method of communication. We have all been a part of a project that goes around and around in circles trying to remember and figure out what actually happens in a process. When we make those steps visible the process is communicated to everyone in a more understandable language. There may be times where you need to add in steps here and there but with the map visual and near the area where the process actually occurs, the communication of the process is much more accurately defined. Another very common reason for process mapping is that a visual map can aid us in the analysis of a business process. Some of the ways we can use process maps to analyze are:
How do we build a process map?
Process mapping is a fairly simple process to learn. But there are a few general rules to follow when you build a process map.
Different Tools for Building your Map:
Process maps can be built with stickie notes and butcher paper, excel, powerpoint, word or in vizio. Over the years I have grown to love stickies and butcher paper because it is much less restrictive and can be built anywhere. For our purposes today though we will use excel to build our process map. Today we will cover three types of process maps: The top down flow chart, the linear flow chart and the swimlane or cross functional flow chart. If you haven't downloaded a template yet, you can do so by clicking here.
The first thing you will want to look over is the first tab of the template. Excel makes it very simple to choose your symbols by simply clicking on the insert tab and selecting shapes. At the bottom of the shapes you will notice symbols for building a flowchart. You can try to memorize them right away but there is also a reminder of the symbols meaning in the first tab.
The great thing about a top down chart is that we can still drill into each of the process steps below it. 2. We then can ask the subject matter expert, "what do you have to do to get the ingredients out?" The person baking the cake might say:
The next type of map you will find in your template is known as a linear flowchart. The linear flowchart is a diagram that displays the sequence of work steps that make up a process. It will show decision points, rework loops and a few other elements. Let's make a linear flow chart for our cake.
The final flow chart we will look at is the swimlane flowchart. These types of flowcharts are often referred to as deployment flowcharts too. The swimlane flowchart is used to distinguish what job function of the organization is performing what steps. They can be used to show back and forth activities between steps and unlevel workflows.
As you can tell in the swimlane diagram above we can see very clearly who is responsible for what process step. If there were overlapping steps we would see those stacked which may be a trigger that there is an opportunity for improvement.
What should process maps have?
Like any other map a process map has a few unspoken rules we should do our best to adhere to. First and foremost be sure to label the process name and the team somewhere on the map just in case there are any questions. You may also want to place a date on the map of when it was created. Next the process map should be very simple to read, it needs to go in one direction not up and down and side to side. Try to keep a flow that is either left to right or top to bottom. You will also need to identify start points and end point and keep all of your loops closed. Did I include all these unspoken rules?
Helpful things to look for in a map.
We mentioned a few items to look for in our process maps but let's summarize them here now that you are an expert.
Building a Project Charter
Selecting a project in Lean Six Sigma can sometimes be a daunting task. But like any other project it is a necessary step that you will have to take at some point. One very important piece of this early decision comes in the form of a document called a project charter. The project charter is a very important piece of the puzzle that we have written about before in a post titled The Project Charter. The project charter is one of the first essential steps in many different types of projects. It acts as an informal contract between the organization and the team. The charter will set a clear outlook on what the team's objective is and how their success factors will be measured. Additionally it contains historical evidence for the project, a clearly defined problem statement, a goal statement, the boundaries associated with the project, team members, measurements and an estimation of the time needed to complete the project's implementation all on one sheet of paper.
Where does the charter come from?
In general a project charter will normally take one of two roads of development. The first is that a charter is developed by leadership or the top level management of the organization and then is presented to the team. The other very common way a charter can develop is through the team's discovery of opportunities or issues that might need to be solved or improved. The team then pieces together a project charter and presents their findings to upper management. No matter how the project charter is developed, consensus and buy in from upper management and the team is absolutely critical to the project's success. This agreement of the project's direction will show the rest of the organization that both the team and upper management approve and endorse the project moving forward and will provide the team with the support and empowerment they will eventually need.
What is included in a project charter?
Basic identifiers - The charter should always begin by defining basic elements such as the company name and the project title. Like a contract this identifies who the contract is between and a general title to keep projects organized.
Business Case (historical reasoning) - Next the charter should include a clearly written one or two sentence business case. This simple two sentence business case will define "why" the team has been formed and how the project aligns with the organization's strategic direction. In other words the charter will show how the project aligns with the vision and the mission of the company.
Problem Statement - After the business case is clearly defined the charter will very clearly tell us what the issue or opportunity is that the team is going to focus on. This is called the problem statement.
Goal Statement - The next important element is the goal statement. The goal statement lays out the objectives that the team is expected to achieve. These expectations or the goal statement should always be agreed upon by both the team and the team champion. A very important piece of the goal statement is to be sure that when it is written out, it is done in such a way that makes the statement measurable.
Scope - The project charter will also include the boundaries or the scope of the project. These boundaries make it clear what is acceptable and what is out of the project scope. It is very important that the boundaries are clearly defined in the scope. This part of the charter is what will empower and hold the team accountable for their actions. The scope will give team members the freedom and support they need to focus their energy on the important tasks at hand.
Measurements - As noted earlier the goal statement should be worded in such a way that makes the objective measurable. Those measurements or Key performance Indicators are placed on the charter so that the team can identify baselines of where they are starting from, where they are headed and eventually actuals that can be used for reflection or as a means to see how near or far the team landed in relation to their target.
Team Roles - Another important designation that is contained within the project charter are the roles of each of the team members. This simply lays out who's on the team, who the champion is and who the sponsors are along with any other members that might apply to the project.
Milestones (schedule) - Last but not least the charter will include a high level project schedule or a gantt chart.
All of the information outlined above is normally documented on one piece of paper, with each category being very clearly defined, concise, accurate and to the point as possible. It's quite a bit of information I know, so let's list some of the advantages related to documenting all this project information.
Example and walkthrough
If you haven't downloaded the charter template yet you will need to do so now. You can click right here to get your template. Now that you have your template let's get started.
STEP 1 - As we noted earlier on the first thing we will need to document is the basic identifiers. Let's say our company name is Bob's machine house, I know original right? Next we will input our project title. Our title will be Accounting Cycle Time Reduction.
STEP 2 - Now we are ready to identify our business case or the historical reasoning for the project. This is a short summary of our strategic direction and reasons for the project. In general your short summary should include either quality, cost or scheduling issues or opportunities. Most of the time the business case will be directly related to either:
Step 3 - After our business case is documented we are ready to define our problem statement. This statement should be as detailed as possible. The problem statement should provide insight in the following ways:
One thing to keep in mind as you define your problem statement is that it should not be leading in any way. Make sure the statement is neutral and does not pass preconceived judgements or diagnosis.
Example - Problem Statement
Our cash to cash cycle at the accounting process has not been meeting the standard of 30 days. As a result of this our funds are invested in inventory 50% longer than we expect. It is crucial that we improve this because we are not getting a return on our investments quick enough.
With a neutral statement like this, the team has no preconceived notions, allowing them to work towards the project objectives with an open mind.
STEP 4 - Our next step is to gain consensus on a goal statement. As a general rule of thumb goal statements are generally in the realm of 50% improvement or reduction depending on the goal. We will again use the standard goal statement format in the template. The statement might sound like this: The Goal is to reduce the cash to cash cycle time by 50% resulting in a reduced, cash to cash cycle of 15 days.
STEP 5 - Once everyone including the project champion have agreed on the goal statement we then need to define our project boundaries or the scope of the project. There are two boundaries you will need to clarify here. The first is the longitudinal scope which tells us where the process starts and where the process ends. One example of our cash to cash cycle time might be:
Start - When materials are acquired and End - When we receive payment.
The other boundary we need to define in our scope is the lateral scope. This refers to the "width" of the process. One example of the lateral scope for our cash to cash cycle time might be:
The cash to cash cycle time for our accounting project only applies to the accounting and purchasing department but no other department is applicable in the entire organization.
After combining the two boundaries our scope tells us that we need to be empowered from the point materials are acquired to the point where we receive payment only within accounting and purchasing. One thing to note with scope is that you may want to include more specific level of authority than just lateral and longitudinal.
Step 6 - Next we need to define our measurements. There are at minimum three measurements you should establish and track. A baseline, A future state and the actual results after the project is complete. Since our goal statement and problem statement already defined the metrics we need, we just need to input them into our template in the measurement section. The one that I will use is the number of days for the cash to cash cycle time, you may want to use others too though. Since we know our standard of 30 days is being exceeded by 50% as defined in the problem statement, we can input a baseline of 45 days (30 days + 50% of 30) in the current state. Our future state measure was defined in our goal statement. So we can input 30 days (45 days baseline - 15 days improvement) in the future state which tells us we need to improve by 15 days. The actuals will be measured when the project is complete. Remember since you more than likely will have more than 1 measurement to input those too.
Step 7 - Your team roles should be somewhat self explanatory, just be sure to input your sponsor, coach or champion and each of the team members in the template.
Step 8 - Last but not least we need to establish a schedule for our project. This schedule defines the amount of time you think you will need from the start of the project to the complete and full implementation. The template includes a scheduling tab that you can enter in the stages you want to measure. The dates will automatically populate back to your charter, but let's look at one example just to be clear. If I were using the DMAIC method I would want to make my start and complete dates visible for the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control Phase. If you are using another methodology simply plan the high level steps of that methodology the same as we did with the DMAIC example.
Now you have all the necessary information on your project charter to move forward with your improvement. Be sure to remember though that the charter should be revisited every day of the event to adjust and monitor the charter. Even if you don't feel like doing it, just do it. There will be times where new people join the project and it will save you a lot of time and energy if you can hand them an up to date Project Charter to catch them up to speed.
The C&E/XY Matrix
In almost every project you perform in both lean and six sigma teams will bring a long list of experience, talent and solutions to the project table. But often times it can feel overwhelming when trying to decide which of the solutions to move forward on, especially if you have limited time for implementation. So how do we complete this important project task without losing all of our hair?
What is the tool used for?
The cause and effect matrix, C&E matrix or XY diagram is a great tool that can do the job quite effectively. The XY matrix takes a list of possible X's and narrows them down into a more manageable amount of inputs. Similar to the way a PPI measurement works in selecting projects the C&E/XY matrix helps us to prioritize solutions for implementation.
How do we use the tool?
First and foremost let's recall our formula that we use in six sigma projects, Y=F(X). We will use this same formula in our C&E/XY matrix. The Y's or the red cells represent process outputs and the cells above our Y's which are yellow represent our customer's voice or the level of importance the outputs are to the customer. Next we have the grey cells which shows us our input variables or our X's. The X's are what input variables you will use in your attempt to accomplish the Y or customer desire. Finally we have our blue cells which tell us the level of impact or correlation each input has on the output. So let's define a process for using the C&E and walk through an example.
1. The first thing we want to do is define the the process outputs. This is simply the end result or customer desire that we are trying to achieve. Let's say we are listing some important outputs for a hamburger we are making.
will score each of the outputs on a scale of 10 to 1. 10 being the most important and 1 being the least important. For best practice your most important Y will be your only 10, however your other Y's can and may score the same.
Inputs could be anything from initiatives to projects or other activities you will use in order to achieve the outputs. There are many different ways that you can gather suggestions for improvements like brainstorming and gemba walking. Any way is acceptable just be sure to place those inputs in the grey boxes.
5. When this data is in the cells you see a total number and percentage number automatically populate. We first want to look at the total column. In the case of our hamburgers our priority would be first creating a standard for making the burgers, then adding a special sauce to our burgers. The way we read is by looking for the highest number and placing our options in descending order going down.
Although our hamburger example was only in theory the XY/C&E matrix will be a very valuable tool for your team to use when you have multiple solutions in mind. As always using any data that may exist is the best way to get the most accurate results, however if there is no type of data qualitative information will be very helpful. Just remember that if you use the matrix based on qualitative data that the best thing you can do to get accurate results is make the team cross-functional.
Click Here to Submit Your Post on Listen to the Gemba.