Order Cost is best defined by the APICS Dictionary, 15’th edition as; a direct labor cost incurred when a purchaser places an order. Ordering costs are different from the “Order Cost.” The ordering costs are all the costs associated with the purchase order and any labor involved in inspecting the goods when received, any labor associated with stocking the received items, invoicing suppliers and issuing payments. APICS defines ordering costs in the 15’th edition dictionary as; the costs that increase as the number of orders placed increases. Used in calculating order quantities. Includes costs related to clerical work of preparing, releasing, monitoring and receiving orders; the physical handling of goods; inspections; and setup costs, as applicable.
Obeya or Oobeya refers to a form of project management and is a component of lean manufacturing. Even more specifically, the Toyota Production System. The obeya is a similar concept to a "bridge room" or a "war room."
During the product and process development, all individuals involved in managerial planning meet in Obeya to speed communication and decision-making. This is intended to reduce "departmental thinking" and improve other methods of communication which tend to introduce forms of waste into the process.
Conceptually akin to traditional “war rooms,” an Obeya will contain: visually engaging charts, graphs, milestones, progress, countermeasures and any other forms of critical information for attendees to make decisions accurately and efficiently.
Reference: Wikipedia - Obeya
Overall equipment effectiveness is a metric that helps measure and track the performance of finite resources and can help companies highlight opportunities for improvements. The results are stated in a generic form which allows comparison between manufacturing units in differing industries. It is not however an absolute measure and is best used to identify scope for process performance improvement, and how to get the improvement. If for example the cycle time is reduced, the OEE will increase i.e. more product is produced for less resource. Another example is if one enterprise serves a high volume, low variety market, and another enterprise serves a low volume, high variety market. More changeovers (set-ups) will lower the OEE in comparison, but if the product is sold at a premium, there could be more margin with a lower OEE.OEE measurement is also commonly used as a key performance indicator (KPI) in conjunction with lean manufacturing efforts to provide an indicator of success. OEE can be illustrated by a brief discussion of the six metrics that comprise the system. The hierarchy consists of two top-level measures and four underlying measures.
Reference - Wikipedia : Overall equipment effectiveness
The symbols shown above can be used to show the number of operators at a work center or in a process step on a value stream map.
One piece flow is the ideal concept behind the just-in-time system. One-piece flow is when items or services are processed in one piece lot sizes moving directly from one process step to the next (one piece at a time). One-piece flow drastically reduces lead times and improves quality by exposing abnormalities in processes.
The ABC's of