A backlog is every customer order that has been received as an order that has not yet fulfilled the customers request.
This type of work activity does not meet the criteria of value added work, mainly because a customer is not willing to pay for the product, service, activity or information. However, the product, service, activity or information although not considered value added is necessary to either protect the company or comply with regulatory requirements. Because of this it must be performed by the organization. This type of work is still considered wasteful.
Although business necessary work can not always be eliminated right away these activities should still be reduced or minimized as much as possible until they can be removed.
A bottleneck is the term used for any function, department, resource or facility whose needed capacity is less than the demand being placed upon it.
Bias is a term frequently used in forecasting and six sigma. Bias is the term used when a consistent deviation occurs from the mean/average. The deviation is always in one direction (either high deviation or low deviation). When forecasting a zero bias would represent a perfect forecast. In six sigma 0 deviation would represent absolutely no deviation from the established standard.
The bullwhip effect can be described as an extreme change in the supply chain upstream that is normally triggered by a small change in demand downstream. This often affects inventory levels which can shift from being on backorder to being in excess of the needed demand. The general cause of these fluctuations within the supply chain is almost always related to communication. As communication travels up the supply chain with various forms of waste and delay amounts, times and the accuracy tend to "whip" further from the actual need. The one sure fire way to eliminate the bullwhip effect is to align supply with demand, including completely transparent communication and synchronization of the supply chain perfectly.
Reference: Apics Dictionary 2015 - Bullwhip effect.
When you buff a car you place a thin layer of wax on the paint of the car. This glossy wax helps protect the car's paint and body against elements like wind, weather and changes in environmental conditions. Similarly buffer inventory is meant to help keep productions lines steady when changes in demand occur. Some common examples of buffer inventory are:
Reference: Apics Dictionary 14'th Edition
The boundaries/scope of a charter make it clear to the team what the starting and stopping point are and to what level. The scope includes lateral and longitudinal scope. Starting and stopping points are usually outlined with a SIPOC map or a flow chart. Scope sets the in’s and out’s or the boundaries for team members.
Best Practices are a technique used in benchmarking. The technique measures similar items, activities or services and is used as a measurement or performance standard. Defining best practices is often used in continuous improvement to set new standards or improve on current practices.