The bullwhip effect can be described as an extreme change in the supply chain upstream that is normally triggered by a small change in demand downstream. This often affects inventory levels which can shift from being on backorder to being in excess of the needed demand. The general cause of these fluctuations within the supply chain is almost always related to communication. As communication travels up the supply chain with various forms of waste and delay amounts, times and the accuracy tend to "whip" further from the actual need. The one sure fire way to eliminate the bullwhip effect is to align supply with demand, including completely transparent communication and synchronization of the supply chain perfectly.
Reference: Apics Dictionary 2015 - Bullwhip effect.
When you buff a car you place a thin layer of wax on the paint of the car. This glossy wax helps protect the car's paint and body against elements like wind, weather and changes in environmental conditions. Similarly buffer inventory is meant to help keep productions lines steady when changes in demand occur. Some common examples of buffer inventory are:
Reference: Apics Dictionary 14'th Edition
The boundaries/scope of a charter make it clear to the team what the starting and stopping point are and to what level. The scope includes lateral and longitudinal scope. Starting and stopping points are usually outlined with a SIPOC map or a flow chart. Scope sets the in’s and out’s or the boundaries for team members.
The ABC's of