Poka-yoke (ポカヨケ) is a Japanese term that means "mistake-proofing". It is derived from poka o yokeru (ポカを除ける), a term in shogi and igo referring to avoiding an unthinkably bad move.
Perception in one regard is defined as the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses. Quality on the other hand is defined as; how well a product or service meets the needs of a customer according to some said standard. Perceived quality is one of eight dimensions of quality defined by David Garvin in and article from 1987 entitled "Competing on the Eight Dimensions of Quality". It refers to an assessment of a product’s or services quality based on criteria defined or established by the observer, generally an outside party.
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A problem is a deviation or gap between what is actually happening and what should be happening. A problem can also be defined as any customer need that is not met on-time in the right amount and in acceptable quality (according to the customer).
Product costs are the costs allocated or the costs accumulated to create a product. In general, Product costs will include direct labor, direct materials, consumable production supplies (MRO), and factory overhead. A product cost is typically calculated on a single unit or on a batch of units and divided by the number of units manufactured. This is why ordering in "bulk" or "batch" is often times more cost effective, because the cost of the batch is spread over the entire group rather than accumulated to one piece. Keep in mind that product costs are initially recorded as inventory on a companies records. Once the product is sold, it then becomes an expense (cost of goods sold).
PDCA or plan-do-check-act is a four step method used in lean, quality improvements and other continuous improvement strategies.
The 5 core principles of a Lean Organization were first written about in a book entitled: Lean Thinking by James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones. The 5 core principles are widely accepted as a means implementing and establishing a lean organization. The 5 core principles have been adapted from the 5 original principles that were defined by Dr. Womack and Daniel T. Jones:
A primary metric or a primary process metric is used to measure process level performance. The metric is generally reported in a time series format showing the baseline or current state data, target or future state data and actual performance data. The primary metrics must be aligned and consistent with the problem statement the team defines and these types of metrics can be used to track progress towards your project goals and objectives as defined in the project charter. The primary metric will ultimately measure or determine your level of success as it pertains to your project.
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See: Product Family.
Process time is the time that the product or service is actually being worked on by an operator or employee. Process times can be observed and gathered using a stopwatch.
Pareto’s concept suggests that most effects come from relatively few causes. To be even more specific Pareto’s concept suggests that 80% of effects are directly related to 20% of causes. The principle is often used in the narrowing down of choices and focusing in on priorities. To Learn more about Pareto's Concept visit our recent post in our blog entitled Listen to the Gemba, "The Pareto Chart." You can also learn more about the Pareto Chart and learn how to build your own in our Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt Course.
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