PDCA or plan-do-check-act is a four step method used in lean, quality improvements and other continuous improvement strategies.
The 5 core principles of a Lean Organization were first written about in a book entitled: Lean Thinking by James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones. The 5 core principles are widely accepted as a means implementing and establishing a lean organization. The 5 core principles have been adapted from the 5 original principles that were defined by Dr. Womack and Daniel T. Jones:
A primary metric or a primary process metric is used to measure process level performance. The metric is generally reported in a time series format showing the baseline or current state data, target or future state data and actual performance data. The primary metrics must be aligned and consistent with the problem statement the team defines and these types of metrics can be used to track progress towards your project goals and objectives as defined in the project charter. The primary metric will ultimately measure or determine your level of success as it pertains to your project.
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See: Product Family.
Process time is the time that the product or service is actually being worked on by an operator or employee. Process times can be observed and gathered using a stopwatch.
Pareto’s concept suggests that most effects come from relatively few causes. To be even more specific Pareto’s concept suggests that 80% of effects are directly related to 20% of causes. The principle is often used in the narrowing down of choices and focusing in on priorities. To Learn more about Pareto's Concept visit our recent post in our blog entitled Listen to the Gemba, "The Pareto Chart." You can also learn more about the Pareto Chart and learn how to build your own in our Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt Course.
A problem is a deviation or gap between what is actually happening and what should be happening. A problem can also be defined as any customer need that is not met on-time in the right amount and in acceptable quality (according to the customer).
Problems can typically be categorized into one or more of the following categories:
Topics for discussion:
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A pilot test is used to ensure that an experiment, process, tool or method works. The pilot test can be done with a lot, batch or single piece with the objective of proving something new that has not been used before.
The Pareto Priority Index or PPI is a method of performing a cost to benefit analysis. It is used in quantifying potential projects. The analysis weighs the savings and probability of success against the cost and time of completion. It is important to keep in mind that unless historical data is gathered and used the index is largely qualitative and often includes no customer input. When prioritizing your project options it is a good idea to take into consideration customer surveys and other qualitative means before final project selections are made.
Poka Yoke is a series of techniques used to error proof, mistake proof or create a fail-safe process that is designed to prevent errors, defects or mistakes. Even more specifically a poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator avoid mistakes. Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to errors as they occur. The concept was formalized, and the term adopted, by Shigeo Shingo as part of the Toyota Production System.
Reference: Wikipedia - Poka-Yoke
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